This is easy to rig millivolt source for field calibration or troubleshooting of 4-20 mA current loops. Here a Darlington pair is used for current amplification which reduces the Ib error as gain is very high.

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource.

A rotary switch selects, 4-12-20 mA Preset points. A Bourns multi-turn wirewound Pot can also be used with a digital dial. Enclose in a dust proof handheld box. Read more on process calibration.

A mA source terminated with a 10 Ohm or 100 Ohm can turn it into a mV Source. The Resistor should be above 1W and has good temperature stability. Use MFR 1 % many in parallel to get a Instrument shunt if you do not get any.

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**Opamp-Circuits-4**. Show all posts## Wednesday, March 15, 2017

## Saturday, November 19, 2016

### Current Source for Resistance Measurement

Here is a current source you can build for resistance measurement. When the current is held constant, you know as per Ohm's Law the Voltage across Resistor is proportional to Resistance value.

Resistance measurement with Current Source

The supply is +12 and -12, The total voltage across R6 + R7 is 24V. Then 24V / 120K = 0.2mA. The voltage across R6 is (10K * 0.2mA) = 2V. The same is reflected across R5 in this feedback configuration. That means Q3 is a 2V / 1K = 2mA source. If my calculations are right.

Design of a Constant Current Source

There are sources of errors in this circuit. The temperature variation of all resistor values, which is 100ppm for general calculations in 1% MFR. Let us assume you use OP07 which is close to an ideal opamp, but for this application it is not needed. The second error is Ib, the base current of Q3 which may be 0.2mA / Hfe(200) = ~ 1 uA. Then the variation of Hfe, Vcc and Vdd w.r.t. Temperature, should not be overlooked. Use LM7812 and LM7912.

So you see, design knowing that all these components are not ideal. Leakage currents, Humidity, EMI, Stray Capacitance and Inductance and much more. It is just like, even when the motor is fixed firmly on the machine, some parts Vibrate and create a Noise due to Mechanical Resonance. So Build and evaluate your design in the real environment, to learn.

Discover how resistors are color coded - Interactive Java Resistors Tutorial.

Resistance measurement with Current Source

The supply is +12 and -12, The total voltage across R6 + R7 is 24V. Then 24V / 120K = 0.2mA. The voltage across R6 is (10K * 0.2mA) = 2V. The same is reflected across R5 in this feedback configuration. That means Q3 is a 2V / 1K = 2mA source. If my calculations are right.

Design of a Constant Current Source

There are sources of errors in this circuit. The temperature variation of all resistor values, which is 100ppm for general calculations in 1% MFR. Let us assume you use OP07 which is close to an ideal opamp, but for this application it is not needed. The second error is Ib, the base current of Q3 which may be 0.2mA / Hfe(200) = ~ 1 uA. Then the variation of Hfe, Vcc and Vdd w.r.t. Temperature, should not be overlooked. Use LM7812 and LM7912.

So you see, design knowing that all these components are not ideal. Leakage currents, Humidity, EMI, Stray Capacitance and Inductance and much more. It is just like, even when the motor is fixed firmly on the machine, some parts Vibrate and create a Noise due to Mechanical Resonance. So Build and evaluate your design in the real environment, to learn.

Discover how resistors are color coded - Interactive Java Resistors Tutorial.

## Friday, October 14, 2016

### Precision Op-Amp Current Source

In this circuit we tackle the error indicated in the earlier Current Source. The LM336-2.5V eliminates the tiny error of the regulated supply and resistors. Thereby increasing Precision to a higher degree.

The opamp mirrors the stable 2.5V across P3 + R13. With P3 Bourns 10 Turn Trimpot you can trim the current for calibration. Q1 BC557B having a Beta - hfe of 200 is used. But a higher gain or a FET here may reduce error further, that may be needed if you are going for 16 Bit or more resolution. Then even opamp needs to change.

Mini RTD Pt-100 Three Wire Transmitter

Suppose you build it with the best Opamp, FET etc., but place it close to a Warm transformer, Regulator chip or even a Cooling Fan, you will see the lower digits of a 5-1/2 DMM spinning fast.

The opamp mirrors the stable 2.5V across P3 + R13. With P3 Bourns 10 Turn Trimpot you can trim the current for calibration. Q1 BC557B having a Beta - hfe of 200 is used. But a higher gain or a FET here may reduce error further, that may be needed if you are going for 16 Bit or more resolution. Then even opamp needs to change.

Mini RTD Pt-100 Three Wire Transmitter

Suppose you build it with the best Opamp, FET etc., but place it close to a Warm transformer, Regulator chip or even a Cooling Fan, you will see the lower digits of a 5-1/2 DMM spinning fast.

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## Circuits by Application

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