Showing posts with label Opamp-Circuits-2. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Opamp-Circuits-2. Show all posts

Sunday, March 20, 2016

Square and Triangle Opamp Oscillator

Here is the circuit of a Op-Amp based Square Wave Generator. One of the main application of this is in a Simple PWM circuit and Triangle Opamp Oscillator. The Slope of the Triangle wave is compared with a DC Level to derive a pulse width or On-Time proportional to a Voltage.

Tutorials on Basics and Instrumentation Electronics

This On-Time proportional to voltage is for a fixed oscillation rate based on C2-C3 and R15. The C2-C3 form a Unpolarized cap, This type is also used in crossover networks in speaker boxes. This is because, a plastic 4.7 uF (2 * 10uF series) is big and costlier, but a plastic cap is very stable and closer to an ideal cap.

Square and Triangle Opamp Oscillator

First you need to know that most opamps in such circuits can give a square wave, but very few can swing to the rails (+/-5). For designing take 75% of Vcc. CA3130 is one that can swing to rails like a CMOS gate.

Assuming the swing of output is around +/- 4V, the pin 10 + input will be at +/- 2V. When the cap is discharged at 0 V, let us take that the output is +, the cap charges to a little above +2, - input becomes dominant, so output swings negative. This discharges the cap to 0 and then charges it negatively upto -2. This in turn flips the output to + as pin 10 turns dominant. Hence this continues as a oscillation, with a nice triangle across the cap for the PWM comparator.

Dominant means more +, 0 is positive compared to -2V. Also -2.5 is negative compared to -2.2.

Related Reading - Op Amp Triangle-Wave Generator

Friday, April 11, 2014

Three Opamp Differential Instrumentation

This is the best Instrumentation OpAmp, Great CMRR, ensure supply has no ripple and keep analog and digital grounds separate. Ri can be replaced with a trimpot and resistor to alter gain. Connect a preset ends to pins 1 and 8 and preset wiper to VCC for Offset Null when high gains are configured.

Thermocouple and Pt-100 RTD

The Input zeners and diodes form a protective clamp for all voltages above VCC-VDD. If supply is changed to +12 -12 change zeners to 12V zeners. Use similar Zeners at output to protect Output from being zapped by overvoltages or high energy - voltage*frequency transients. Add plastic capacitors across Rf for damping AC operation or ripple. Also avoid floating inputs by providing a bias.

3 Op-Amp Differential Instrumentation Amp

Vout = (Vp - Vn) * (2Rf+Ri)/Ri

Related Reading

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Dual Polarity Analog Output Op-Amps

When you have to buffer and invert the polarity of mV input levels. This is the circuit you can use, as OP07 has uV offset. R9 and R10 can be 100K 1% MFR or better. Use a symmetrical dual supply.

Dual Polarity Analog Output

OP07: Ultralow Offset Voltage Operational Amplifier

Circuits by Application

Analog Circuits

  1. Battery Level Indicator
  2. Simple Sample and Hold
  3. Sample and Hold Standby
  4. Voltmeter Attenuator
  5. Precision Current Source
  6. Opamp Supply Virtual Ground

SCR and Triac

  1. Solid State Relay
  2. Normally Closed AC SSR
  3. AC-AC-SSR
  4. DC-DC SSR
  5. 2N2646 based Pulser
  6. Drive SCR thyristor

Mains Power

  1. Flashing Neon Lamp
  2. Dimmer power control
  3. Edison Bulb Life Extend
  4. Mains Current LED
  5. Mains Voltage LED

Digital Circuits

  1. Simple Digital Counter
  2. Running Lights
  3. Frequency Divider
  4. Crystal Oscillator
  5. Simple High speed switch
  6. Differential TTL converter

Measureall DMM

  1. Ohmmeter Measure Resistance
  2. Precision Digital Attenuator
  3. Precision Amplifier

Mixed Circuits

  1. Monostable Multivibrator
  2. Digital to Analog
  3. LM311 Oscillator
  4. PLL using 4046
  5. VCO with LM331
  6. BCD Thumbwheel to Analog
  7. V to F Converter ICL8038
555 Circuits
  1. OR gate with two 555
  2. fixed frequency duty cycle
  3. Pulse width modulation
  4. Astable Multivibrator
  5. uC Reset Generator
  6. LM555 Voltage Doubler
  7. 555 Power Oscillator
Discrete Circuits
  1. Isolated dual supply
  2. Sound to light converter
  3. Water operated relay
  4. Telephone Indicator
  5. Passive volume control
  6. RS232 Opto-Isolation
  7. Voltage Level Indicator
  8. Relay Driver
  9. Constant Current LED
  10. Voltage Doubler
  11. FET Current Source
Opamp Circuits
  1. Three Opamp Differential
  2. Two Opamp Differential
  3. Buffer Opamps
  4. Differential Op-Amp
  5. Inverting Opamp
  6. Non Inverting Opamp
  7. Digital gain control
  8. Square Triangle Oscillator
  9. Dual Polarity Output Amps
  10. Ammeter Precision Rectifier
  11. Voltage / Current 4-20 mA
  12. Current Source for RTD
Power Electronics
  1. Dual Power Supply
  2. Single Power Supply
  3. Battery Backup Supply
  4. 5V 1A Supply LM2575
  5. 5V Power Supply L296
  6. Dual Power Supply
  7. Tubelight Electronic Choke
  8. Voltage Doublers Multipliers
  9. White LED Lamp on Ni-Cd

uC and uP

  1. PC RS232 with MAX232A
  2. Battery Backup SRAM
  3. watchdog uC uP systems
Instrumentation Circuits
  1. Mains monitor LM3914
  2. Simple Mains monitor
  3. single digit voltmeter
  4. High Resistance Meter
  5. Diode Thermometer
  6. Function Generator
  7. Diode Leakage Tester
  8. Analog LED Ohm Meter
  9. Millivolt Source Current Loop
Process Control
  1. AD590 - temperature
  2. Thermocouple Amplifier
  3. Linearizing Thermocouple
  4. Thermocouple Amplifier
  5. 0-1V to 4-20 mA
  6. 1-5V to 4-20 mA
  7. InfraRed - Optical Switch
  8. InfraRed Detector