Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Precision Attenuator for Digital uC Control

When Instruments are designed a analog front end is essential and also as most equipment have digital or microcontroller interface the analog circuit needs to have digital access. The Circuits DACT0008 and DACT0009 are both useful in building instruments which have digital control.

Precision Attenuator with Digital Control

The Circuit DACT0008 is a programmable attenuator and the digital control can be a remote dip switch, a CMOS Logic Output like the A-B-C-D outputs of a decade counter, or an I/O port of a uC like 80C31.

The heart of the circuit is the popular OP07 OpAmp with Ultra Low Offset in the inverting configuration, 4052 a CMOS analog multiplexer switch enables the gain change, the innovation of the circuit is that the on resistance ( around 100 ohms) of 4052 switch is bypassed so that no error is introduced by its use.

The resistors used R1 to R6 can be 0.1% 50ppm if you will use a 3 ½ DPM i.e. + /- 1999 counts ( approx. 11 bit ), but for 4 ½ DPM ( approx. 14 bit ) you may need to have trimpots2 in place of R3, R4, R5 & R6 gain selection resistors to properly calibrate to required accuracy but for testing or trials use 1% 100ppm MFR resistors but the errors will be around 1%.

Precision Attenuator with digital control

b. Output

Output connect to DPM 7107/7135 or any other A/D Convertor or OpAmp Stage. Use a buffer at output if output has to be loaded by a value less than 1Meg. Use an inverting buffer if input leads have to have polarity where gnd is -In. See DACT0009 for details.

c. 4052 CMOS Switch

The 4052/51/53 Analog Multiplexers have an on Resistance of around 100E the highlight of the circuit is that the CMOS on resistance comes in series with the opamp output source resistance, which produces no error at output.

Digital Control Options

A and B can be controlled by I/O port of uC, like 80C31 so that the uC can Control gain. A and B can be given to Counters like 4029/4518 to scroll gain digitally. A and B can be connected to DIP switch or thumbwheel switch.

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

0-1V to 4-20 mA Converter

This two opamp circuit converts analog voltage signals to current (sink) signals in a proportional manner. Current signals are more immune to noise and cross talk, hence long wires can be used.

Ensure +5/-5 dual supply for chip TL062 IC3. Gnd is common ps ground, let grounds radiate from ground plane in one side of PCB. R3-R8 is an attenuator that may need to be designed or modified.

0-1V to 4-20 mA Converter

In output R23 is for protection from shorting of +5V supply, R23 can also go to an unregulated or external. supply upto 24V DC which is referenced to this circuits gnd. More voltage more distance.

Q2 is the current control device, and R22 50E is the shunt for taking a sample of current. 4-20mA in the output (provided suitable load is connected) means 200mV- 1000mV across 50E shunt. This is fed to close loop control system of IC3a inverting pin.

An opamp on this type of feedback tries to drive the output in such a way, so as to maintain both the inputs at same level.

Mini RTD Pt-100 Three Wire Transmitter

If there is 1V at pin 3 and no current is flowing pin 2 is at 0V so output goes positive and drives Q2. this results in a flow of current till a 1V builds across shunt, if it exceeds then output of opamp falls This reduces drive to transistor and hence current reduces. That is the part of V to I conversion with open collector output.

Now we need 200mV to 1000mV to get 4-20mA 4mA is good for 0 as low level measurements are more noise prone. that is the reason 4mA and not 0mA.

Now we need to convert 0-2 V to 0.2 - 1.0 V using IC3B. R14 is a representation of that 200mV offset set by R16 pot. the opamp IC3B adds both the input and this offset to get 200mV to 1000mV. for that the opamp IC3B is an analog computer, summer, subtracter. Try to now calculate the values for that.

Thursday, October 05, 2017

Dual Polarity Analog Output Op-Amps

When you have to buffer and invert the polarity of mV input levels. This is the circuit you can use, as OP07 has uV offset. R9 and R10 can be 100K 1% MFR or better. Use a symmetrical dual supply.

Dual Polarity Analog Output Op-Amps

OP07: Ultralow Offset Voltage Operational Amplifier

Both the output are identical but opposite polarity. Only low offset opamp can make this possible. We also have to consider temperature stability, environment, emi and thermoelectric emf when working with micro-volts.

Ensure the opamp circuit including the 1% resistors are away from power electronic circuits like output drivers and power supplies. A hot Mosfet close to a 1% resistor will need Sherlock Homes to fix your design, which is flawless. The layout was kaput.

Circuits by Application

Analog Circuits

  1. Battery Level Indicator
  2. Simple Sample and Hold
  3. Sample and Hold Standby
  4. Voltmeter Attenuator
  5. Precision Current Source
  6. Opamp Supply Virtual Ground

SCR and Triac

  1. Solid State Relay
  2. Normally Closed AC SSR
  3. AC-AC-SSR
  4. DC-DC SSR
  5. 2N2646 based Pulser
  6. Drive SCR thyristor

Mains Power

  1. Flashing Neon Lamp
  2. Dimmer power control
  3. Edison Bulb Life Extend
  4. Mains Current LED
  5. Mains Voltage LED

Digital Circuits

  1. Simple Digital Counter
  2. Running Lights
  3. Frequency Divider
  4. Crystal Oscillator
  5. Simple High speed switch
  6. Differential TTL converter

Measureall DMM

  1. Ohmmeter Measure Resistance
  2. Precision Digital Attenuator
  3. Precision Amplifier

Mixed Circuits

  1. Monostable Multivibrator
  2. Digital to Analog
  3. LM311 Oscillator
  4. PLL using 4046
  5. VCO with LM331
  6. BCD Thumbwheel to Analog
  7. V to F Converter ICL8038
555 Circuits
  1. OR gate with two 555
  2. fixed frequency duty cycle
  3. Pulse width modulation
  4. Astable Multivibrator
  5. uC Reset Generator
  6. LM555 Voltage Doubler
  7. 555 Power Oscillator
Discrete Circuits
  1. Isolated dual supply
  2. Sound to light converter
  3. Water operated relay
  4. Telephone Indicator
  5. Passive volume control
  6. RS232 Opto-Isolation
  7. Voltage Level Indicator
  8. Relay Driver
  9. Constant Current LED
  10. Voltage Doubler
  11. FET Current Source
Opamp Circuits
  1. Three Opamp Differential
  2. Two Opamp Differential
  3. Buffer Opamps
  4. Differential Op-Amp
  5. Inverting Opamp
  6. Non Inverting Opamp
  7. Digital gain control
  8. Square Triangle Oscillator
  9. Dual Polarity Output Amps
  10. Ammeter Precision Rectifier
  11. Voltage / Current 4-20 mA
  12. Current Source for RTD
Power Electronics
  1. Dual Power Supply
  2. Single Power Supply
  3. Battery Backup Supply
  4. 5V 1A Supply LM2575
  5. 5V Power Supply L296
  6. Dual Power Supply
  7. Tubelight Electronic Choke
  8. Voltage Doublers Multipliers
  9. White LED Lamp on Ni-Cd

uC and uP

  1. PC RS232 with MAX232A
  2. Battery Backup SRAM
  3. watchdog uC uP systems
Instrumentation Circuits
  1. Mains monitor LM3914
  2. Simple Mains monitor
  3. single digit voltmeter
  4. High Resistance Meter
  5. Diode Thermometer
  6. Function Generator
  7. Diode Leakage Tester
  8. Analog LED Ohm Meter
  9. Millivolt Source Current Loop
Process Control
  1. AD590 - temperature
  2. Thermocouple Amplifier
  3. Linearizing Thermocouple
  4. Thermocouple Amplifier
  5. 0-1V to 4-20 mA
  6. 1-5V to 4-20 mA
  7. InfraRed - Optical Switch
  8. InfraRed Detector

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