Thursday, November 12, 2015

Sample and Hold with Standby CD4053

A, B, and C are the Digital Control for x, y and z input and output pairs.The voltage at Vinx is stored in C1 when A goes high, when A is low the voltage stored in C1 is read by buffer U2A.

It could be used in DMM circuits as Analog Memory DMM range, AC-DC mode, logic control

Sample and Hold with Standby CD4053

Another application of  Mux 8 Channel 4-20mA Analog Multiplexer

The stby or standby input should be low when sample and hold is operating. If stby is taken high then C1 Cap is isolated and leakage is minimum. The supply of +/- 7.5V is chosen as OFF resistance of 4053 is high at this supply.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Flashing Mains Neon Lamp

Here is a Neon Flasher circuit (untested) for a user request at Elex Quna. This can be built into a switchboard or a gadget for indicating Live Power.

D1-C1 form a simple half-wave rectifier, The Cap charges to peak voltage and can store charge for a long time if there is no bleeder. So while building it take extra care. This forms a DC supply across C1. C1 is a Plastic High-voltage cap, IN4007 has a 1KV rating, so it is ok for 230V rectifier.

See more of my Home Made Circuits.

R1 Charges C2 and when C2 reaches 60-80V depending on Neon, the neon breaksdown. C2 Discharges, Neon Recovers, The C2 starts charging again and so on and on. It Oscillates, probably in a Ramp Waveform. But do not use your Scope on this, you will regret it a lot. This is a live circuit and needs a special probe.

"Oh, i will put the probe it in 10M mode" will not do. The ground clip of the probe goes to Electrical Earth which is 'connected' to Neutral in the mains wiring. So you put the earth crocodile clip on the live point. There will be flashes and fireworks. So you need to isolate both terminals of scope. Please use your costly equipment with great care.

For the 1 Meg use two 470K in Series for 230V AC, that is safer. The circuit is live, so take precautions. The 0.47 Micro Farad can be increased if you want a slow flash. If the Mains 50/60 Hz Flicker is too much, the 1 uF can be made 2 uF, or use 4 - 1N4007 as a bridge rectifier.

Flashing Mains Neon Lamp
From Schematics of delabs

Flashing Neons (NE-2 / NE-51) second from top

User Feedback -

R1 of 4.7M and C2 of 0.47uF Works well at 230V AC. Try your own Combination. Less than 1M may damage Neon.

Wednesday, November 04, 2015

Digital gain control of Opamp

The gain of U1 can be controlled by a digital binary 1248 nibble at ABC. The gain at digital 000 is unity or 1 and the gain at various stages are set by 4051.

Precision Attenuator with Digital Control - delabs

There are eight different gains as the steps of gain resistor network is chosen by 4051. The on resistance of 4051 channel around 100E gets added to U1 pin 2 internal impedance.

Digital gain control of Opamp.

Auto ranging 4-1/2 Digit Digital Voltmeter - delabs

You can use separate resistor networks with trimpots for each channel if you require but keep the networks total burden on U1 pin 6 to around 10K, not less than than. You can use this to set the gain of a amplifier with the help of a microcontroller.

If you have any IC with Analog FET Switches, you can adapt this design for that. The Cross-talk should be less and On-Resistance as low as Possible. Off Resistance as High as possible.

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Linearizing Circuit for Thermocouples

This circuit changes the gain of opamp U1B in four steps or segments. It can be used to get a linear output from most transducers to 1% levels.U1A is a amplifying buffer use it to boost the signal to the required level.
Linearizing Circuit for Thermocouples

The resistor values i have put are for an imaginary transducer, you have to design them. The buffered input signal is compared to reference switching points by LM339.

Temperature Measurement and Control

LM339 changes the gain resistors of U1B thru the mux switch 4066. JP1 to JP4 can select either amplification or attenuation of signal. The resistor switched by 4066 can be across R1 or R2 based on JP1 to JP4.

You may have to input transducer values into a spreadsheet and draw a graph. Then divide the graph into 5 segments and deduce the switch points and gain.

Thursday, October 08, 2015

PLL using 4046 - Phase Locked loop

CD4046 is a PLL or phase lock loop, it mainly consists of a VCO and phase comparators. This is a component in FM demodulation and modulation.

Mixed and Interface Circuits

PLL using 4046

It is used in a closed loop control to maintain a stable frequency. The Circuit above is good for learning the full use of a small Dual Trace Scope. The Circuit has both Analog and Digital areas and is a part of communication.
Read the pages above for building more Knowledge on PLL

Tuesday, October 06, 2015

Thermocouple Amplifier Standard

The OP07 is a low offset 75uV opamp, here it is used to amplify the output of a Thermocouple, the gain of this stage is high. The zeners are to protect any high voltage at input zapping the opamp.

Thermocouple Amplifier Standard

The Resistor R6 limits the current. The zeners should be low leakage or use clamping pull-up and pull-down diodes to +5 and -5 respectively.

The RC low-pass filter formed by R6 and C2 reduce the mains hum or 50 Hz pickup of long thermocouple cables laid close to high current heater wiring. R1 is a offset null use or add if required. R11 is gain control of OP07. The TL072 is a FET input opamp used here as a summing amp.

Adding one more inverting amp with some gain to the output of this circuit can give you a 1-5V suitable for ADC or PC analog I/O cards. C1 also serves to filter, it is an integrator here. It suppresses EMI and RFI from motors, contacters etc., R13 sets an output value for 0mV input.

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

AD590 based Temperature Sensor

Learn how to use the AD590 to measure environment temperatures for display, logging or cold junction compensation.

The voltage at the point 1 of R4 will be :Vo=( 1+ ( 10K/22K)) * Vref = 3.63V as nominal Vref is
2.5V.AD590 is a current source which gives 1 uA / kelvin, It is independent of the voltage across the device. you can treat it like a current source or sink or impedance. total voltage across AD590 is 5V as opamp pin 2 is at virtual ground.

Analog Circuits - OpAmp, Signal Condition, Mixed Signal.

AD590 based Temperature Sensor

This is the way you try to understand the design.


The AD590, here is a constant current sink as cathode goes to -5. The current it sucks away or drains from node pin 2 of OP07 is 1uA/ kelvin. at 0 deg C the current drained is 273 uA at 26 deg C it is 300uA.

You know according to theory that the amount of current entering the node, is equal to the amount of current leaving the node. do not look at voltages now, look at the currents. the AD590 drinks 273uA from Node pin 2 of OP07 at 0 deg C. Now no current can come from opamp OP07 pin 2 as resistance is in giga ohms and leakage in pico amps. now the pot R5 and resistor R4 are just in series and connected to 3.63 V as established earlier. The TL431 is a shunt regulator with reference and has a low impedence. Now the R5 + R4 combination should not load the TL431, that is not the case as 3.6 / 10K = 360uA .

By varying R5 pot you can pump 3.6 / 10K = 360uA down to 130uA when R5 is max into node pin 2 of OP07. This pot will be calibrated with AD590 in ICE to give a 0 mV output of the Op07. When calibrated R5+R4 pump 273 uA into node pin 2 of op07. this is sucked away by the AD590 which is draining 273uA at 0 deg C. This leaves the pin 2 at zero potential as currents leaving = currents entering.

Now to understand the opamp functioning.

The pin 2 of opamp is a 0 potential as calculated above and pin 3 also is at zero pulled down by R7. Now as both inputs are at same potential the output of opamp also is zero. The feedback resistors R1 and R2 will carry no current as both their ends are at 0. the Vout is now 0 mV and AD590 is on a block of ICE and opamp is stable.

If pin 2 (-) becomes more dominant or positive than pin 3 (+) the output swings negative. If pin 3 (+) becomes more dominant or positive than pin 2 (-) the output swings positive. The opamp on feedback tries to maintain both the inputs at the same potential. This thumb rule can be used to make opamp oscillate, amplify or compute.

Now what happens when the AD590 is removed from the block of ICE. It comes to room temperature say 26 deg C which means 300uA. Now the AD590 demands to draw 300uA from node pin 2 of OP07. The R4 + R5 from 3.6 V can give 273uA as it is fixed, not a uA more. The rest which is 300 - 273 = 27uA leads to a drop in potential at pin 2 and it turns negative. as demand is greater than supply. which makes pin 3 which is at zero more positive than pin 2. ( theory : 0 is positive compared to -1) as pin 3 is more dominant opamp swings positive as per thumb rule. and a current starts flowing thru R1 + R2 till the current reaches 27uA. at this point the extra current 27uA drawn by AD590 is supplied by opamp thru R1+R2. The Pin 2 now comes to 0 as currents leaving = currents entering.

Test & Measurement, Instrumentation

At this point the voltage at opamp output is given by ( R1 + R2 ) * 27uA = 270mV (assume R1+R2 is 10K after calibration) now opamp gives 10mV per deg C.as opamp now is a closed loop control the rise and fall in temperature, results in AD590 current variation which produces a proportional OP07 output.

Now the explanation above is in steps but all that happens in real time in an instant.

Monday, September 21, 2015

FET Current Source and MOSFET

This is a constant current source using a FET. This is the most simple replacement to series resistor to limit current. The N-Channel FET BF256C can give 15mA current.


Simple Methods

Before you get to use chips, experiment with some methods, which will help you learn about the LEDs better. The first is just One Resistor in series. This is to Limit the max current in a Series LED Chain. If you have a Regulated Supply with a Fixed Voltage, then you can use this method.

Let us take a 12V SMPS, Each HB White LED has a drop of around 3.2 (please see datasheet). If you put 3 LEDs in series it is a drop of 3 X 3.2 = 9.6 V.

12V - 9.6V = 2.4 V. This is the drop across the Resistor, let us keep the current at 20mA for a Long life for LED. Some LEDs will get damaged at 30mA some take more that that. We now have LED Modules which can take even 1 or 2 A.

V/I = R as per OHM. 2.4V/20mA = 120 E or Ohms.

How Hot? W = VI Power in Watts. 20mA x 2.4V = 48mW. This is where you lose the Money. Keep it low, else the Green Goblin will frown. Unless you want LED Lighting to double up as a Room Heater, Nice idea if you are in the Artic.

Now you have a chain of 3 LED with one R, make many such chains and put it in parallel to around 70% of SMPS capacity. If you have 20 Strips of 3 LEDs each, 20 X 20mA = 400mA. You will need a 12V 600mA SMPS .

MOSFET Drive for LED Constant Current

Let us assume, you have a supply that is varying and not stable. Then use a SMPS and Resistor as shown above. Closely matching the LED Chain to the SMPS voltage to keep the heat loss minimum. At Low voltages the above idea may not work. So you can try a MOSFET circuit shown.

You can use Transistors too but The Heat is more, as the Drop is more. When you use batteries, you cannot afford to lose even 0.5V. So the MOSFET is the answer.

This circuit is a nice design idea about LED drive with low voltage and watts burden. In combination with a Joule Thief - and PWM you can make many White LED utilities like Lanterns and Flashlights. PWM is to modulate brightness and also Extend LED Life.

The Essence is The LED has to have a long life, constant current is the answer. The Efficiency has to be High, Switching MOSFET is the answer. For just a LED or Two, you do not need to bother about Efficiency, but Constant Current, No Compromise. Why? Because it is in the Absolute Maximum Rating.

"You do not cross the road, when the light is RED. You do not Drive Faster, than the Speed Limit. You do not Eat, more than you can Digest.You do not Stress the Absolute Max in the Ratings."

The Elektrik Jedi
Read More

Monday, September 07, 2015

VCO with LM331

This Circuit is a simple Analog to Digital Interface with a capability of 10 to 12 bits resolution. 10 bits means 1024 counts or parts of a full scale FS which is close to 3-1/2 1999 counts.
VCO with LM331

In this 1 V can be read as 1.000 V that means even 1mV can be resolved for FS of 1V.
The Caps C6 and others must be plastic multilayer low-leakage types for accuracy of reading.
Use all 1% MFR 100ppm or better resistors, Design gain of U1B for the Full Scale you want.

The Output Fout is a Frequency which is directly proportional to the measured voltage Vin.
The pulses can be isolated using opto-couplers to avoid ground loops or electric hazard.
An additional protection and scaling circuit at the input may be required for some sensors.

Thursday, July 09, 2015

Mains Current Indicator with a LED

This is a mains 230V AC load current indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistors have to be a fusible ceramic wire wound.

More at Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Current LED Indicator

This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 1A a slow blow if you want but it is very important. You can design the shunt R3 and Fuse rating as required by your load.

Note that this circuit is to be put in series with the load like an ammeter. If you put it across the supply like a voltmeter it will fuse out or burn out. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.

Mains Voltage Indicator with a LED

This is a mains 230V AC voltage indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistor has to be a fusible ceramic wire wound and the capacitor 630V AC or higher capacity.

More at my Home Made Circuits.

Mains Voltage LED Indicator

This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 100mA a slow blow if you want but it is very important. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.

Tuesday, July 07, 2015

Monostable Multivibrator CD4538

CD4538 is a dual Monostable Multivibrator. When you trigger the chip the output sends off one single pulse or one high-low event.

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

The T+ pin 4 of U1a is the positive edge trigger or raising edge trigger input, the T- pin 5 is falling edge or negative edge trigger input. Now see the image of the single pulse above which shows both the edges, If this is the input pulse at pin 5 then the falling edge turns the output pin 6 from low to high, this output remains high for time T = R2 * C1 and then goes low again, The output Q at pin 6 also looks like the image of pulse above.
Monostable Multivibrator CD4538

The Output pin 7 is the complementary state of pin 6, it is the reverse state or inverted form of pin 6 output.

Now why is a slope shown in the edges, this i have exaggerated a bit so that it can be explained. But then there is a slight slope due to gate input and output capacitance.

In fact if you had a wire or twisted track coming to the input and the R2C1 was in nano seconds, then you would see a ringing at the edges, a tiny peak or spike, which will have giga hertz frequency components, in fact a square way may be many sine waves put together, this you know from a spectrum analyzer.

Two Stage Sequential Timer

CD4538B can give an output with pulse width of 1uS and above. 74HC4538 gives 120nS to 60 Seconds pulses. The above circuit produces a pulse of width T = R3 * C2 after a delay of T = R2 * C1. Some Chips formula is T = 0.7 * R * C .

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Digital to Analog with R2R Ladder Network

This is a R-2R Digital to Analog Converter, It converts a byte (8 bit) to a analog value. It has 256 levels including zero.

This was the first Digital Pot i Built decades back - Digital Potentiometer
This can be used to convert a byte sent from a microcontroller to a analog value like say 1.51 V. At full scale, when all 8 bits are high calibrate to give 2.55 V then ever bit increment is 0.01V, 10mV steps.

Digital to Analog with R2R Ladder Network

If the eight bits inputs are from a counter you then will see a staircase waveform at output, each step being 10mV higher or lower depending on whether the counter is counting up or down.

The accuracy of the analog output depends on the resistor ladder. The OP07 has an offset error of about 70uV only. The 74HCT373 power is derived from LM336 a stable reference so that the D-A is accurate. The 8 bit data can be latched with the 74HCT373 to get a stable analog value for control systems.
  • LM336 voltage reference LM336-5.0
  • OP07 low offset opamp OP07
See another circuit in which both these ICs are used Mini RTD Pt-100 Three Wire Transmitter

OP07E has very low input offset voltage 75 ┬ÁV max and low input bias current ±4 nA

Tuesday, June 09, 2015

LM311 Square Triangle Oscillator for PWM

LM311 is a comparator, It operates from single 5V supply or dual supplies,input current 150 nA, 50 V-50 mA output drive capability. TTL-CMOS compatible output.

Even LM324  used as a  comparator Water Level Indicator with Reed Relays

The Output is open collector so it can sink current but cannot source, a totem pole output can source and sink. In this Circuit R2 is the source or pull-up.

LM311 Square Triangle Oscillator for PWM

The Output being high or low depends on which input is more dominant or positive. If + or non-inverting input is more positive than the - inverting input then output of LM311 is high impedance or high Z as output transistor of LM311 is turned off, but output goes high due to R2 pull-up 1K, so you can apply a load of 10K and above for source. When the - input or inverting input is more positive, output goes Low as transistor turns on, now a current of upto 50mA can sink here, a LED or Relay can be driven.

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

On turn on C2 capacitor is discharged and pin 3 the inverting input is at a lower potential than pin 2 the non-inverting which is at 2.5V. Hence output goes high and C2 starts charging thru R5, When C2 charges a little beyond 2.5V pin 3 is more dominant and output goes low now, this slowly discharges the C2 bringing the voltage at pin 3 again below 2.5V so output goes high again. This process goes on, hence it oscillates. The charging and discharging is at the rate of R5 * C2 approx. , R3 serves as hysteresis or feedback to ensure clean turn on and off.

Monday, June 08, 2015

Perpetual Candle - White LED Lamp on Ni-Cd

This is a easy to build LED lamp circuit for Learning and building skills. This is the first draft schematic V 1.0. It will need improvements for Higher Power Lighting.

Perpetual Candle Project


I will give a short summary, The LM317 here configured for around 6.4V DC. The Q3 BC547 limits the current, you can select R3 to suit, make it 1/2W. The Ni-Cd battery pack 1.2 * 4 will not get Over-Current or Over-Voltage due to this circuit.


The IRF540 Mosfet or any other equivalent you have around, along with Q2 BC547 forms a current source for the parallel 12 LED array. Ultra-bright White LED at 20mA each or use a 1W ready LED Chip. R4/R6 can be selected for the Max LED current. The voltage of LED is around 3.1 and 20mA * 12 = 240mA is the max current. You can Tweak the design for even 5A or more but then you will need a DC/DC High frequency converter in place of LM317. The Current source also needs to switch to improve efficiency. A PWM on the mosfet gives brightness control. The entire solution (switching) can be found in many chips with semiconductor vendors today.


One Single High Current LED may work well. 12 Matched LEDs also can be used. In LED Array some are dim, put min. resistor (3.9 ohm) for all 12 for current sharing. The resistor addition will impar the ability of Candle to work at lower battery voltages. Also resistor is less green, It wastes power, so use PWM and Single Die high current LED. Ni-Cd system may last over 5 Years if Candle is allways on Mains. Sealed Lead Acid system may go upto 2-3 years life but will have more punch. A SuperCap system may last more than 12 Years, i feel.

Source in Cadsoft Eagle format - candle.zip

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Frequency Divider 74HCT4040

U1 7555 is a CMOS version of 555. The 555 here is in Astable Oscillator mode, C1 and C4 are decoupling capacitors 0.1uF value, ceramic disc.

Mixed and Interface Circuits

The output is around 100kHz, If C3 is plastic or mica the frequency output will be stable with temperature. It is better to use a crystal oscillator.
Frequency Divider 74HCT4040

The 555 output is fed to clock input of 4040, the output of 555 will be a square wave, on every high to low transition (falling edge or negative transition) the counter increments by one and the output is 12 bit binary.

Read more at my Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks

If input frequency is F the final output at Q12 is F/4096. The period T = 1/F.
If you make the 555 run at 1Hz, C3 around 7uF, Then this circuit becomes a long duration timer, the Q12 period will be 4096 seconds or 68 minutes.

Thursday, May 14, 2015

Passive volume control with Potentiometer

Volume control circuit for speaker 4 ohm or 8 ohm located in the another room far away. by using only passive components.
Passive volume control with Potentiometer

A simple circuit you can build at home at low cost it uses just a rotary switch and wire wound resistors. Add more resistors and a rotary switch with more contacts for finer control.

More Hobby Ideas and Projects at Hobby DIY Garage

Guitar Speaker

An easy project to start DIY electronics is the Guitar Speaker. Make a good Acoustically friendly Wooden Box. Add a 20 Watt Audio Amplifier and a Large Speaker, There is a Power Supply too in this box. If you hear a Large Hum over the Strumming of the Guitar. You are in Business.

Monday, May 11, 2015

Crystal Oscillator - Parallel Resonant

74HCU04 is a chip that was made for this purpose, HCT may not work for such a circuit. C1 and C2 can go to upto 33pF and R2 can be increased to make R2 * C2 = t.

Time constant much less than the period T of the crystal T = 1/F . This is to remove higher frequency components in the Oscillator.

More on Piezoelectric Crystal Oscillator
Crystal Oscillator - Parallel Resonant

The circuit above is a parallel resonant oscillator circuit. The Crystal works by the piezoelectric principle, piezo means pressure. The electric field causes the impedance of the crystal to change. The LP Record Player needle is the reverse of this, the bumps on the spiral groove of the record applies pressure to needle which generates electricity. Both are piezo-electric effects.

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Battery Level Indicator

This circuit uses a LM339, a quad comparator. LM339 can work on single or dual supplies, it has a open collector output that can drive 15mA, low power consumption. The circuit is an untested design but it should work. I did it as many searches were made in my webpages with these keywords.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits - Similar circuits for Mains Voltage Monitoring.

There are many better circuits in the various circuit archives i have linked on the front page, you just have to look around. When you measure the open circuit voltage of a battery with a high impedance DMM (10M), the value may be a bit misleading. Apply a dummy load to bleed the battery a bit so that proper readings can be taken on Load. The load below is a 100 ohms wire-wound fusible ceramic resistor which will heat a bit when you test 12V batteries.
Battery Level Indicator

Theory of Operation.

R16 a 5W ceramic wire wound bleeder or dummy load. R15 is a part of an attenuator for obtaining ranges. D2 is a protection clamp diode. R10-D1 forms the 5V reference for comparators. Then an attenuator obtains 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 V steps for each comparator. This circuit is similar to Audio Level meter or VU meter circuit.

Comparators in Interface Circuits

The comparator compares the battery sample voltage to the fixed reference step. If '+' pin is more positive than '-', or is '+' is more dominant, then output goes floating 'open collector', so No LED light . But if '-' is more dominant the output transistor of comparator goes low impedance or saturates or turns 'ON'. But only spec current can be switched, do not compare with electrical switch 'ON'. Also on a dual supply 0V is more dominant or positive compared with -12V, even though it appears -12V is a big number. The direction of current is what decides, all measurements are relative.


Thursday, April 09, 2015

Differential to TTL convertor using LM339

Some outputs are via Dual Differential Line Driver type DS8830. This device will interface with standard TTL systems.

Differential to TTL convertor using LM339

The differential outputs are balanced and are designed to drive long lengths of coaxial cable, strip line, or twisted pair transmission lines with characteristic impedances of 50 ohms to 500 ohms. Differential transmission is superior to single wire transmission in that it nullifies the effects of ground shifts and noise signals which appear as common mode voltages on the transmission line.

Mixed and Interface Circuits

If the signal voltage at the end of the line is found to be of insufficient magnitude then the following circuit may be used (at the recipient equipment end) to boost the levels.

Tuesday, April 07, 2015

Simple Digital Event Counter

The basic digital circuits are Flip Flop and Counter, both are here. This circuit can be cascaded to make even a 6 digit event counter, even a simple frequency counter can be made.

These are best done with microcontrollers today. Then what if you have to design your own microcontroller on a FPGA, so the basics have to be sound, hence you have to know what gates, flip flops and counters are.

Simple Digital Event Counter

See the seven segment display. Inc, Dec, and Set buttons are momentary acting and Clk Button is latching type. The Dip Switch in the also can be set.

a. - Set the DIP Switch as you like and then Press the Set button. The BCD value will be at the 4029 output, The Decimal value will be seen in the seven segment Display. Now try for different dip switch settings and see the BCD and Decimal output.

b. - Now Press The Inc and Dec pushbuttons. Set it to Increment up-count or Decrement which is down-count. This is a simple flip flop control.

Simple Digital Event Counter

c. - Now Click the Clk - clock or count button, the switch will latch, press it again to release. If you toggle it once the counter will get a single pulse and it will count it, see the BCD and decimal displays. Now you turn it on and leave it, the counter will keep counting one per second till you turn it off, the clock nand gate is wired to be an oscillator.

More here - Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks

The decimal point LED of display is given to Carry Out pin of 4029 so observe this at 9 and 0 or transitions.

Add 104 CD, 0.1uF ceramic disc cap to all the ICs across the supply pins. Also add a 104 CD cap across Inc switch and one across the Set switch for power on default settings.

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Analog Buffer and Inverter Switching - DMM Project

Here the 4053 selects or routes the voltage, current or resistance measurements to the A-D converter or display. It is selected with the mode selection when you want to measure Volts, Amps, Ohms and AC-DC. Some have to be polarity inverted and some signals just buffered this is selected and done by this circuit according to the digital control.


Now U1 OP07 circuit is a Buffer unity gain and low offset, U2 circuit is unity gain but polarity of output is opposite of input. D1-D2-R3 form a AND gate to select diode-buzzer test mode. The digital selection of 4053 Analog-Switch does not produce any errors in the analog-switching of even mV signals. But it works best at +/- 7.5V dual supply pin-16 is +7.5V, pin- 8 is digital ground and pin 7 alone should go to -7.5.

Analog Buffer and Inverter Switching

Analog ground can be same as digital ground, or the switched signals must be within +/-5V of digital ground. The switches should not carry any current and should be buffered at the output by FET opamps 1-Tera-Ohm. Then alone measurements are ok, as the switches have ohmic resistance.

Monday, March 09, 2015

Resistance measurement with Current Source - DMM

U3 LF 356 is used as a constant current source (sink as the current is negative). R4, R5, R7 and R9 set the four resistance ranges by changing the constant current in decade steps. R2 is for calibration of resistance range. The A-B digital control of 4052 selects the range.

Resistance measurement - DMM Project

Let voltage current and resistance sockets be separate and of different color or use a high voltage electrical rotary switch or relays if you want the same sockets switched. D1, D2 and R8 are to ensure that the FET can be turned off, as the opamp swings from +/- 3.5V only, with some FET it needs to be tweaked.

Resistance measurement - DMM Project

When you keep the current constant, the voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to the Resistor Value. This can be scaled to gat a usable reading on a Digital Voltmeter.

Monday, March 02, 2015

Simple Millivolt Source for Calibration

This is a modification of a mV Source that can be whipped up easily. You could use a DPM or Multimeter to read the output. The ability of this circuit to perform well depends on the quality of all the MFR resistors and the MultiTurn Pot. Use a Bourns 10T Pot.

Good Soldered Joints, Keep all Resistors and temperature sensitive parts from Transformer and Regulators. Keep Ripple in power supplies low, no EMI tolerated. If you have problems, make a Battery Powered Unit. Shield well in case you are in a Electrically Noisy environment.

Millivolt Source In this link see at bottom this circuit millivolt source, pdf.

Simple Millivolt Source for Calibration

I have put a better offset null, OP07 has around 75uV offset error which may show as +/- 1 count error on 4 1/2 DPM 19999 counts. You can skip it if you are using a 3 1/2 digit DPM as the error will not show, even it 4 1/2 it may be upto 2 counts only.

R9, P4 and R10 are for balance and offset as you said you can use it that way. (old circuit)

C7 can be a low leakage plastic cap, even a tantalum electrolytic is ok, aluminum electrolytic may cause a very small error.

Q1 can be any npn that can take 100mA current, do not use RF devices, 2N2222 is best.

If you use a DPM protect DPM inputs with clamping diodes or zeners or an error in bread-boarding may send +/- 12V to DPM and it may be damaged. Some DPMs come with protection like DMMs. use the circuit in del2003.pdf in analog section to make a 4 1/2 DPM.

Also in 2000mV range do not short outputs as the Q1 may get damaged, and in 200mV and 20mV range the output impedance is 10 ohms which is good for calibrating any high input impedance instrumentation like a process indicator etc. loading with 100K 10K will cause error. Most instruments are very high impedance so it is fine.

Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Astable Multivibrator with 555 Timer

The 555 Astable oscillator gives a square wave output at pin 3, The output drives two LEDs, LED1 lights up when pin 3 is low and LED2 when pin 3 is high.

 The 555 can source (LED2) or Sink (LED1) upto 200mA. It can even drive a small motor or lamp with diodes added to protect from inductive kickback. Vary Ra, Rb and Ct and see the change of frequency, period and duty cycle.

Astable Multivibrator with 555 Timer

These are the formulae used by 555 .

T1 = 0.693 (Ra + Rb) * Ct charge time of Ct

T2 = 0.693 (Rb * Ct) discharge time of Ct

T = T1 + T 2 total period in seconds

F = 1 / T = 1.44 / ((Ra + (2 * Rb)) * Ct) Frequency in Hertz

D = T 2 / T duty cycle, multiply by 100 to get %.

Ct in farads and Ra-Rb in ohms. 


The max power dissipation of 555 is 700mW so overload of more than 200mA will damage the device, connecting the battery in the reverse or wrong polarity will also damage device, ensure also Ra and Rb do not go less than 2.2K (use 4.7K minimum) as it may damage the discharge transistor at pin 7. The supply voltage can go upto 18V. For CMOS 555 like 7555 see the datasheet they are different.

Interactive demo

This is a demo of the popular 555 timer. you can try out the project on this page by a javascript simulation.Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off. The 555 can source (LED2) or Sink (LED1) upto 200mA.

It can even drive a small motor or lamp with diodes added to protect from inductive kickback.Vary Ra, Rb and Ct with the controls given and see the change of frequency, period and duty cycle.

This is a tutorial with calculator to help learn the application of 555 which is a very rare chip innovation. It is simple, versatile, flexible and programmable (by tweaking of pots).

Astable Multivibrato xml code

Screenshot of Astable 555 Timer Flasher

Astable Multivibrator with 555

Saturday, February 14, 2015

Running Lights with CD4017

The 555 Astable generates a clock for this circuit, an oscillator giving a square wave output at pin 3 which is counted by 4017 to give a running lights effect.

The decade counter-divider CD4017 has 10 outputs, for every low to high transition at the clock input, rising edge, the counter advances one LED. After going one full circle the the first LED lights again and it goes on. You can vary the value of R2 100K Linear potentiometer to make LEDs run fast or slow.
Running Lights with CD4017
The frequency of oscillation of astable 555 is given as f = 1.44 / ((R4 + 2 * (R2 + R3)) * C3)
The 10 outputs have 10 green LEDs. The current thru the LED is limited by R1, the current can be calculated like this (9V - 1.6V) / 1K = 7.4mA this is within 20mA which is the danger limit of the CMOS output. You want it to be bright use transistors for every output.

The cap C1 is a filter and C2 is to prevent noise at pin 5 influencing the output as it is a control voltage point.
You can cascade or chain many more counters with the CO or carry out pin 12 of 4017. The pin 15 reset is kept at low for counting, on high it will reset the counter but is not used in this circuit.

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Wednesday, February 04, 2015

Dual Polarity Power Supply

This supply gives both positive and negative outputs. Appropriate Fuses should be used to protect from fire hazard and overload of transformer.

Voltage Regulators LM7812 and LM317

You could use LM7824 or LM7815 or LM7812 for 24V, 15V and 12V respectively. You could use LM7924 or LM7915 or LM7912 for -24V, -15V and -12V respectively.

Dual Polarity Power Supply

The Filter capacitor C1 4700uF has an impedance of Xc = 1 / (2 * 3.14 * f * C) which comes to 0.6 ohms at 50 Hz.

Power Electronic Circuits

The impedance of the load at 2A for 24V is R = V / I that is 12 Ohms which is more than 20 times the impedance of the capacitor at 50 Hz. That means less than 1 / 20 of ripple current will flow thru the load. The Regulator also reduces the ripple a little.

Saturday, January 17, 2015

Current Amp digital control - DMM Project

R6 is the Shunt thru which the current to be measured passes. F1 fuse is to protect shunt. D1-D4 ensures that the current flow is not broken if the shunt blows. The Ammeter is always used in series in a circuit.

OP07 is used here as a digitally controlled amplifier as the voltage offset error is around 75uV. 4052's digital controls A-B set the range by selecting R1, R2, R3, R5 for the digital code at A-B. The inverting amplifier changes the gain and four current ranges are got. The output of this circuit has to go to a buffer and cannot be loaded directly. R8 is offset trim at very high gains, it has to be adjusted for a zero output of opamp for zero current measured.

Current Amp digital control - DMM Project

Rf and Ri are 0.1% MFR, if costly, use bourns 10T trimpot or a difficult way - use series parallel combination and scratch 10% part of resistor network to increase value.

Read more at my - Current Shunt Amplifier with digital control - del20014

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Voltage Attenuator Amp - DMM Project

LF356 opamp FET input is in a inverting amplifier configuration here. R4 + R5 make up Ri each 1/4 W MFR withstands 250V so both will take upto 500V. Use more in series for higher voltage withstand with care in PCB layout and cabinet insulation.

Voltage Attenuator Amp - DMM Project

Rf is selected by a digital value at A-B inputs of 4052, that way R1, R2, R3, R6 are selected for four ranges giving various attenuation levels. The important thing in this circuit is the on resistance of 4052 of 100 ohms comes in series with the output resistance of opamp, so the output is taken before the cmos switch . The output of this digital attenuator should not be loaded and should be buffered before use.

Gain = Av = Rf/Ri and Vout = -(Rf/Ri) * Vin

Voltage Attenuator Amp - DMM Project

Rf and Ri are 0.1% MFR, if costly, use bourns 10T trimpot or a difficult way use series parallel combination and scratch 10% part of a network R to increase value.

Monday, January 05, 2015

Single Polarity Power Supply

This circuit uses a PNP Power Transistor TIP2955, you can use any other according to your current and voltage requirement.

Look at R2 a 10 Ohm resistor, when the current in your load to the power supply is less than 70mA the voltage across R2 is less than 10E * 70mA = 700mV right. The base emitter junction of Q1 will be biased or turned on around 700mV, less than 700mV the transistor just does nothing.

Single Polarity Power Supply

When the current in your load goes over 70mA the voltage across R2 goes above 700mV and a small base current Ib flows from emitter to base of Q1 turning on the transistor. Now a collector current Ic flows from emitter to collector and then to your load supplying the excess demand. The Ic = Ib * hfe where hfe or beta is the DC gain value.

From my Power Electronic Circuits

Some transistors will have only AC gain specified which is lower than DC gain. TIP2955 has a gain of 20 so for an Ib of 50mA the Ic will be 1 Amp which saves the regulator from heating up or shutting down as the main current flows thru the transistor. Q1 should be provided with a good heatsink.

Circuits by Application

Analog Circuits

  1. Battery Level Indicator
  2. Simple Sample and Hold
  3. Sample and Hold Standby
  4. Voltmeter Attenuator
  5. Precision Current Source
  6. Opamp Supply Virtual Ground

SCR and Triac

  1. Solid State Relay
  2. Normally Closed AC SSR
  3. AC-AC-SSR
  4. DC-DC SSR
  5. 2N2646 based Pulser
  6. Drive SCR thyristor

Mains Power

  1. Flashing Neon Lamp
  2. Dimmer power control
  3. Edison Bulb Life Extend
  4. Mains Current LED
  5. Mains Voltage LED

Digital Circuits

  1. Simple Digital Counter
  2. Running Lights
  3. Frequency Divider
  4. Crystal Oscillator
  5. Simple High speed switch
  6. Differential TTL converter

Measureall DMM

  1. Ohmmeter Measure Resistance
  2. Precision Digital Attenuator
  3. Precision Amplifier

Mixed Circuits

  1. Monostable Multivibrator
  2. Digital to Analog
  3. LM311 Oscillator
  4. PLL using 4046
  5. VCO with LM331
  6. BCD Thumbwheel to Analog
  7. V to F Converter ICL8038
555 Circuits
  1. OR gate with two 555
  2. fixed frequency duty cycle
  3. Pulse width modulation
  4. Astable Multivibrator
  5. uC Reset Generator
  6. LM555 Voltage Doubler
  7. 555 Power Oscillator
Discrete Circuits
  1. Isolated dual supply
  2. Sound to light converter
  3. Water operated relay
  4. Telephone Indicator
  5. Passive volume control
  6. RS232 Opto-Isolation
  7. Voltage Level Indicator
  8. Relay Driver
  9. Constant Current LED
  10. Voltage Doubler
  11. FET Current Source
Opamp Circuits
  1. Three Opamp Differential
  2. Two Opamp Differential
  3. Buffer Opamps
  4. Differential Op-Amp
  5. Inverting Opamp
  6. Non Inverting Opamp
  7. Digital gain control
  8. Square Triangle Oscillator
  9. Dual Polarity Output Amps
  10. Ammeter Precision Rectifier
  11. Voltage / Current 4-20 mA
  12. Current Source for RTD
Power Electronics
  1. Dual Power Supply
  2. Single Power Supply
  3. Battery Backup Supply
  4. 5V 1A Supply LM2575
  5. 5V Power Supply L296
  6. Dual Power Supply
  7. Tubelight Electronic Choke
  8. Voltage Doublers Multipliers
  9. White LED Lamp on Ni-Cd

uC and uP

  1. PC RS232 with MAX232A
  2. Battery Backup SRAM
  3. watchdog uC uP systems
Instrumentation Circuits
  1. Mains monitor LM3914
  2. Simple Mains monitor
  3. single digit voltmeter
  4. High Resistance Meter
  5. Diode Thermometer
  6. Function Generator
  7. Diode Leakage Tester
  8. Analog LED Ohm Meter
  9. Millivolt Source Current Loop
Process Control
  1. AD590 - temperature
  2. Thermocouple Amplifier
  3. Linearizing Thermocouple
  4. Thermocouple Amplifier
  5. 0-1V to 4-20 mA
  6. 1-5V to 4-20 mA
  7. InfraRed - Optical Switch
  8. InfraRed Detector